This article highlights the importance of one of the key ceremonies of the sprint, the retrospective. It then goes through some of the common challenges teams face while holding retrospectives. It also puts forth a few thoughts on how to make these reflections thought-provoking ones!
One of the principles of the Agile Manifesto: At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
The key Scrum ceremony that helps the team reflect on its behavior is the retrospective. Of course the team can look back on itself every day, but the retrospective is one of the events that is specifically aimed at the "inspect and adapt" behavior of the team. The Scrum retrospective ceremony is a platform that gives team members an opportunity to reflect, see how they worked together, and discuss how they can become more efficient in the coming sprints. In my view, this is not any new concept or jargon the team needs to master -- but yes, in reality it sometimes becomes challenging to keep the momentum lively at all times! Let us look at the reasons why this happens and discuss a few ideas for making these meetings effective.
Some of the reasons retrospectives becoming boring and monotonous after a while could be:
Retrospectives are always conducted the same way.
No action is taken on retrospective action items.
People lose trust in the retrospective.
People see it as a blame game.
Beyond the team level, impediments are not getting resolved.
Of course, there may be many other reasons as well.
Now, when the team is running a two-week or even a one-week iteration, it is all the more difficult to keep the retrospectives lively due to their frequency. However, there are a few good techniques commonly used in the industry to conduct retrospectives:
A few thoughts for making these meetings interesting
My two cents, after performing retrospectives in a fairly good number of teams and projects, is that retrospectives can become monotonous and boring over time, and so they become ineffective. I have personally faced this challenge and felt that there was a need to bring something new, fun, or exciting to the retrospectives to make them lively.
An interesting experience: The Fly High Technique
Put on a creative and innovative hat.
Change the facilitator.
Change the style.
Come prepared with some data.
Follow up on the retrospective action items!
I was flying kites with my friends at the Pongal festival, and we had a few tangles on the ground, but we could remove these by ourselves. But as the kite flew high, it became stuck between some wires, and we had to get some external help from our neighbors and use sticks and other tools to remove these blockers so we could have a smooth flyway.
A thought came to me that this experience was relevant to some of the scenarios that we see with teams. We come across many bottlenecks during the sprint, and they can be classified into two categories:
Team-level impediments that the team is stuck with but that can be resolved by the team if they work on them consciously (similar to tangles on the ground).
Organizational-level impediments that are beyond the team level and need to be escalated to the next level for resolution (similar to the wires in the sky).
So we had a retrospective a few days after the Pongal festival, and I drew a kite on the board and asked the team to imagine the kite as the good work that they have been doing. I also encouraged the team to:
Identify the good work they have been doing so far and that they would like to continue doing
Identify team-level impediments that they could resolve themselves, provided they really work on them
Identify impediments that need escalation to the next level because they require support from the organization or senior management for resolution
Teams liked this method a lot, and they were easily able to draw a clear line of distinction between the team-level impediments and those that needed escalation to the next level.
So the message is that when we come across some interesting experience in our day-to-day work, we could take it back to our teams and use it whenever it makes sense and suits the teams.
A real launch example
This is another example. I hope most of you remember that India sent Mangalyaan (Mars Craft) into space recently. One of my teams had a retrospective scheduled for the very next day. This made me think of creating a news buzz of sorts, giving an introduction about Mars Craft to the team and saying, "Mangalyaan (Mars Craft), India's first interplanetary project, launched in 2013, has about one year to reach its target." We drew a picture of a rocket on the board and named it "Team Yaan." We noted that while Mars Craft has one year to reach its target, our project had just one sprint left to complete its release. It was the most critical, high-visibility project in the organization, as important as Mars Craft is for India. We said, "Let us identify, as a team, the driving forces -- i.e., what we need to keep doing to ensure that we hit the target -- as well as the pulling forces, the impediments and bottlenecks that are pulling us back from reaching the target." The team was very excited by this analogy and they came up with good information.
So maybe it will help if we use some live examples that we come across, as many people will be easily able to correlate these to their work experience.
A team journey creates bonding
Let me introduce you to another technique I came up with, which I named "Team Journey." I noticed that whenever we said that the team has been traveling together, be it in a train, boat, or a plane, it created some special bonding between the team members. They could come up with data about how their sprints had gone and how they could make their journey a better and more enjoyable ride. The Team Journey concept could be used after the team has completed a minimum of four or five sprints, so that they can really visualize how they work together.
A focus word creates real focus!
In my experience, adding a specific focus quadrant sometimes helped a lot. For example, if we are nearing a release, we add a focus quadrant for quality in the retrospective and ask the team to come up with items that need immediate focus so that they can make a 100 percent quality delivery. Similarly, the focus quadrant could be anything that needs immediate focus from the team.
With a secret box, team members can just drop in their views -- things they would want to discuss in the retrospective -- whenever something strikes their mind. This way, that they don't forget anything. This can also be used if, initially, people are little reluctant to speak out when the team is in the team storming phase. However, the team needs to remember that if an issue needs immediate attention, they should bring it up in the stand-up meeting, or immediately with the team, instead of waiting until the retrospective. Over a period of time, such a box need not be used, as each and every team member should be speaking openly.
Simple word-pair techniques
"I like / I dislike"
"I am proud of / I am sorry about"
"Do more of / Do less of"
We could also use simple word pairs to handle our retrospectives in order to keep them short and sweet.
With one team that was doing a one-week sprint, we actually had only three days to work, due to holidays. I was not sure what technique to use in the retrospective, as it was a very short sprint. So I let the team come up with a topic that they wanted to discuss. Amazingly, the team had a good discussion about how to increase their domain knowledge, do cross-learning, etc. This made me feel that sometimes leaving the option open to the team and asking them what they wanted to talk about can trigger a good discussion. Hence, perhaps asking the team explicitly whether they would like to have a discussion about specific topics, and facilitating the discussion around those topics, can really help.
Change of facilitator
Instead of the same person -- i.e., the ScrumMaster -- conducting the retrospective, we can ask each team member to take turns conducting the meeting. This way they can try out their own "flavor" and enjoy taking ownership as everyone starts thinking in their own way about making the retrospectives effective. We can introduce the simple concept of rotating the facilitator.
Change of style
Change of style also adds value. Once in a while we can have the retrospective over a coffee, lunch, or while the team is on an outing. At these times, the facilitator has to be attentive and note down what the team is saying. He or she could also summarize the points discussed very briefly in the next day's stand-up.
Kudos to the team!
The most important thing is never to forget to appreciate and thank your team members for the ways they have helped each other. Maybe you can give them small kudos in the form of chocolates, smiley badges, and so on. In my experience, this can have a lasting impact on the team and really help it gel.
Reserve a small space in the team room and capture all the kudos given to each team member every sprint; this helps them feel good when something positive is visible in their team area.
Last but certainly not least, a very important thing to keep in mind is the follow-up on action items that the team identifies in the retrospective. Having some sort of visual indicator of the action items, along with the people responsible for them, always helps the team stay focused. Generally we tend to forget the action items that are derived from the retrospective. So before starting the retrospective, it's important to revisit the previous retrospective's action items and see how many of them are still pending.
Tracking the retrospective action items can be done in different ways. We can use some electronic tool or a visual indicator, as in the example here:
Retro radiator classifications:
Sprint: In which sprint were the action items identified
To Do: Action items yet to be worked on
In Progress: Action items being worked on
Done: Completed action items
Waiting: Action items that are waiting on something else to support their getting done
On each card, we can write the name of the owner responsible for the execution of that item.
Understand the purpose of the retrospective: It is to learn, not to blame!
Do not experiment with too many new things at once.
Try plain vanilla first.
Then try to add toppings!
Ask the team how they want to handle the retrospective and get their buy-in.
There is no single right answer for how to make the retrospectives effective -- each team has its own preferences.
It always helps if we iterate the prime directive at the beginning of the retrospective, especially when we have some new members in the team.
The facilitator can iterate the prime directive: Regardless of what we discover, we understand and truly believe that everyone did the best job they could, given what they knew at the time, their skills and abilities, the resources available, and the situation at hand.
I conclude this article by saying that the methods mentioned here may not work for everyone; much depends on team composition and on the environment. However, in my experience I could see some visible improvements in productivity, quality, one-to-one coordination, collaboration, and so on after using some of these methods.
I would be glad to hear from any readers who have tried anything different that has worked out for your teams and retrospectives. Thank you!